All ethical goods are autonomously defined by selves (i.e.

[2:15] They show that the work of the law [ ; Sanskrit , ] is written [] in their hearts [ ]., , §6

Self-love, therefore, is no part of morality.

More importantly in this passage, however, is Kant's casual assumption that self-love is "the feeling whose special office is to impel the improvement of life." Kant is in no position to know what the "special office" is of our natural feelings, unless he can know the essence and purposes of human nature.

He acted.Michael Valentine Smith, , by  [1961, A Berkley Medallion Book, 1968, 1973, p.69]

Indeed it is exactly its counterpart.

When Heracles kills his wife Megara and their children, he is not morally culpable, since he has been driven temporarily insane by the goddess Hera and is not responsible for his actions.

Ethical goods thus fall into two categories: goods for the self and goods for others.

Only eating will Adam and Eve know that disobedience was wrong, if it was -- for, indeed, this puts us back at the problem of the , whether the will of the gods alone is sufficient to establish what is good.

people know what they like), except in relation to morality, which contains absolute ethical goods.


Even excuses the suicide of virtuous pagans, such as .

The Bishop, of course, by his lack of concern for the episcopal silver and his insight into Valjean's potential, thus has used forgiveness to effect the moral reform and conversion of the man who otherwise was headed directly for a life of crime and imprisonment.

This is an extraordinary and absurd proposition.

Jean Valjean, the paroled convict whom I have considered under the question of moral , is taken in by the kindly Bishop of Digne, Charles-François-Bienvenu Myriel.

Will God damn the willfully unhappy soul?

Hugo's own son, a staunch French anti-clericalist, complained that this made a Churchman look too good; but Hugo had based the character on the real Bishop of Digne, François-Melchior-Charles-Bienvenu de Miollis (1753-1843).

(if there even is such a thing).

I think that what explains it is the same reason that his vengeance is so easily limited in the first place, a realization of the vanity and insubstantial nature of the world.

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But he also forgives his own brother Antonio and Alonso's brother Sebastian, even though they do not evidently repent and are not worthy of forgiveness -- even as Prospero specifies, "They, being penitent," as the condition of his forgiveness.

Moral duty consists of , which means .

The Christian may think that forgiveness is required as a display of Christian love, but then God, who is supreme , only forgives if there is repentance.

Moral autonomy combines will and reason.

The Christian consequently can forgive because the will be justly dealt with by God, and because forgiveness is a manifestation of a that signifies and embodies a release from worldly affairs.