essay need developing scientific attitude
Reliable knowledge issometimes called justified true belief, to distinguish reliable knowledge from belief thatis false and unjustified or even true but unjustified. (Please note that I do not, as somedo, make a distinction between belief and knowledge; I think that what one believes isone's knowledge. The important distinction that should be made is whether one's knowledgeor beliefs are true and, if true, are justifiably true.) Every person has knowledge orbeliefs, but not all of each person's knowledge is reliably true and justified. In fact,most individuals believe in things that are untrue or unjustified or both: most peoplepossess a lot of unreliable knowledge and, what's worse, they act on that knowledge! Otherways of knowing, and there are many in addition to science, are because their discovered knowledge is . Science is a method thatallows a person to possess, with the highest degree of certainty possible, reliableknowledge (justified true belief) about nature. The method used to justify scientificknowledge, and thus make it reliable, is called the scientific method. I will explain theformal procedures of the scientific method later in this essay, but first let's describethe more general practice of scientific or critical thinking.
Scientific Attitude Essay, Thesis Similarity Checking
What is scientific thinking? At this point, it is customary to discussquestions, observations, data, hypotheses, testing, and theories, which are the formalparts of the scientific method, but these are NOT the most important components of thescientific method. The scientific method is practiced within a context of scientificthinking, and scientific (and critical) thinking is based on three things: using empiricalevidence (empiricism), practicing logical reasonsing (rationalism), and possessing askeptical attitude (skepticism) about presumed knowledge that leads to self-questioning,holding tentative conclusions, and being undogmatic (willingness to change one's beliefs).These three ideas or principles are universal throughout science; without them, therewould be no scientific or critical thinking. Let's examine each in turn.
"The knowledge obtained fromaccurate time study, for example, is a powerful implement, andcan be used, in one case to promote harmony between workmen andthe management, by gradually educating, training, and leading theworkmen into new and better methods of doing the work, or in theother case, it may be used more or less as a club to drive theworkmen into doing a larger day's work for approximately the samepay that they received in the past."  Scientific Study andstandardization were important parts of the ScientificManagement.
Tone: A Matter of Attitude - CommNet
When one uses the scientific method to study or investigate nature or theuniverse, one is practicing scientific thinking. All scientists practice scientificthinking, of course, since they are actively studying nature and investigating theuniverse by using the scientific method. But scientific thinking is not reserved solelyfor scientists. Anyone can "think like a scientist" who learns the scientificmethod and, most importantly, applies its precepts, whether he or she is investigatingnature or not. When one uses the methods and principles of scientific thinking in everydaylife--such as when studying history or literature, investigating societies or governments,seeking solutions to problems of economics or philosophy, or just trying to answerpersonal questions about oneself or the meaning of existence--one is said to be practicingcritical thinking. In other words, critical thinking gives you reliable knowledge about all aspects of yourlife and society, and is not restricted to the formal study of nature. Scientific thinkingis identical in theory and practice, but the term would be used to describe the methodthat gives you reliable knowledge about the natural world. Clearly, scientific andcritical thinking are the same thing, but where one (scientific thinking) is alwayspracticed by scientists, the other (critical thinking) is sometimes used by humans andsometimes not. Scientific and critical thinking was not discovered and developed byscientists (that honor must go to ancient Hellenistic philosophers, such as Aristotle, whoalso are sometimes considered the first scientists), but scientists were the ones to bringthe practice of critical thinking to the attention and use of modern society (in the 17thand 18th centuries), and they are the most explicit, rigorous, and successfulpractitioners of critical thinking today. Some professionals in the humanities, socialsciences, jurisprudence, business, and journalism practice critical thinking as well asany scientist, but many, alas, do not. Scientists practice critical thinkingto be successful, but the qualifications for success in other professions do notnecessarily require the use of critical thinking, a fact that is the source of muchconfusion, discord, and unhappiness in our sociey .
How to Write an Essay - Examples of Good and Bad Writing
Scientists never claim that a hypothesis is "proved" in a strict sense (but sometimes this is quite legitimately claimed when using popular language), because proof is something found only in mathematics and logic, disciplines in which all logical parameters or constraints can be defined, and something that is not true in the natural world. Scientists prefer to use the word "corroborated" rather than "proved," but the meaning is essentially the same. A highly corroborated hypothesis becomes something else in addition to reliable knowledge--it becomes a scientific fact. This type of reliable knowledge is the closest that humans can come to the "truth" about the universe (I put the word "truth" in quotation marks because there are many different kinds of truth, such as logical truth, emotional truth, religious truth, legal truth, philosophical truth, etc.; it should be clear that this essay deals with scientific truth, which, while certainly not the sole truth, is nevertheless the best truth humans can possess about the natural world).