james madison federalist papers 10 - essays
George Mason was a Fairfax County delegate to the Virginia Convention, filling the seat vacated by George Washington who had been appointed commander-in-chief of a continental army. The Convention, which convened in Williamsburg on 6 May 1776, was arguably the most noteworthy political body ever assembled in the Commonwealth's history. Composed largely of veterans of the old House of Burgesses, the Convention, on 15 May, passed a resolution instructing the Commonwealth's delegates at the Continental Congress to press for a declaration of independence from England. The assembly also appointed a committee to prepare a state declaration of rights and plan of civil government. Among those appointed to the committee were Mason and the young, untested delegate from Orange County, James Madison, Jr.
Factionalism in the Young Republic
Virginia ratified the Constitution over Mason's objections by a majority of one vote. But Mason's objections to the Constitution were published all over the nation, and excited widespread demand for a bill of rights. When the First Congress convened in New York in 1789, Congressman James Madison — converted at last to Mason's point of view — introduced a series of amendments to the Constitution that formed the Bill of Rights. It was the crowning achievement of Mason's public life.
Each provision was subjected to debate. Patrick Henry convinced the convention to drop Mason's ban on ex post facto laws. A quiet young delegate from Orange County -- twenty-five year old James Madison -- unsuccessfully urged the convention to broaden the article on religious toleration. The Declaration that emerged from this debate has been described as one of "the world's most memorable triumphs in applied political theory." Its author, the French philosopher Condorcet wrote, had earned "the eternal gratitude of mankind."
George Mason, The Thoughtful ..
51 is one of several documents that compose the Federalist Papers, a series of essays written by James Madison, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton promoting the ratification of the Constitution....
twenty-five year old James Madison ..
Federalist Paper #10 is one essay in a series of papers written mostly by James Madison, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton, fighting for the ratification of the United States Constitution.
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The first ten volumes of the Congressional Series of The Papers of James Madison were published by between 1962 and 1977; most are now out of print. Volumes published since 1978 in the letterpress edition are available from .
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The modern edition of The Papers of James Madison documents the life and times of the Virginia statesman we remember today as the “Father of the Constitution” and the fourth president of the United States. The edition is organized into four series: the Congressional Series (1751–1801); the Secretary of State Series (1801–9); the Presidential Series (1809–17); and the Retirement Series (1817–36). Each series corresponds with one of the major phases of Madison’s public and private life between 1751 and 1836.
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The meeting of joint commissioners for Virginia and Maryland at Mount Vernon to work out a code for use of the Chesapeake Bay and Potomac River (Washington had long been a proponent of canalizing the latter to create a water route to the interior), led to the Annapolis Convention of 1786, called to discuss regulation of interstate commerce. In 1787 Washington was chosen as a Virginia delegate to the Philadelphia Convention that was to revise the Articles of Confederation. Against his wishes Washington was elected presiding officer. The resulting Federal constitution that was adopted in September 1787 did not bear much of his handiwork, but it breathed the spirit of his strong nationalism, and his reputation was tied to its success. Not very surprisingly, Washington was elected president after it was ratified and became the first executive officer to serve under the new government. The same rigorous sense of duty that saw him through the Revolutionary War compelled the fifty-seven-year-old Washington to take the presidential oath of office on 30 April 1789 in the new federal capital of New York City. Dignity, common sense, political acumen gained from twenty years experience, and a keen judgment of men’s characters and abilities were his chief assets in dealing with the new Senate and House of Representatives, establishing general precedent, and making appointments. He had a difficult time in finding qualified individuals to serve in the new federal judiciary, but the heads of the executive departments of war, state, and the Treasury, were men of talent, integrity, and even brilliance. The president supported Treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton’s fiscal program of federal assumption of state war debts and the creation of a national bank, both of which chiefly benefited the monied classes, as the only viable way for the United States to restore its national credit and assume its proper rank among the nations. Even before the end of Washington’s first administration, opposition coalesced around secretary of state Thomas Jefferson and his friend congressman James Madison. These Virginia gentlemen favored a states’ rights view of strict interpretation of the Constitution, domestic policies favoring the landed interests, and a foreign policy aligned more closely to France than Britain.