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The French government under the auspices of its ambassador, “Citizen” Edmond-Charles Genet, was conspiring to take over New Orleans and destabilize the American government. Stanley Elkins and Eric McKitrick wrote: “The most sweeping of the objectives Genet was to pursue involved rousing up the peoples of Louisiana, Florida, and Canada by spreading among them the principles of the French Revolution. They would then cast off the yoke of their oppressors, and this would benefit France in the forthcoming war by striking at Spanish and British power in the New World. He was to employ a variety of techniques: propaganda, secret agents, and American adventurers in the border areas – Kentucky in particular – whose drive to obtain the opening of the Mississippi would inspire them to assist in organizing expeditions against the Spanish possessions. He would also encourage privateering against British shipping by French and American seamen operating from New World bases. He was accordingly given a supply of blank letters of marque and military commissions to distribute where they would be most effective.”78

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Weapons of the American Revolution - Artillery

The technological factor was expressed in the radical disparity between the technologies of warfare deployed by the contending European and African forces. African forces in general fought with bows, arrows, spears, swords, old rifles, and cavalries; the European forces, beneficiaries of the technical fruits of the Industrial Revolution, fought with more deadly firearms, machines guns, new rifles, and artillery guns. Thus in direct encounters European forces often won the day. But as the length of some resistance struggles amply demonstrates, Africans put up the best resistance with the resources they had.

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Monroe was James Madison’s Secretary of State. Monroe led a brutal repression of a slave revolt in 1800. All those slave-owning presidents were highly aware of what had happened in Haiti and wanted no threat that American slaves might actually rise up and free themselves. As governor of Virginia, Monroe refined the system of keeping the slaves suppressed and less likely to revolt. Monroe presided over the Missouri Compromise of 1820, which extended slavery to southern North America as the empire expanded westward. Madison and Jefferson both approved of the measure. Monroe was a Revolutionary War veteran, and he got back into uniform and led American forces during the War of 1812. He became Madison’s Secretary of War after the British burned Washington, D.C. Four of the first five American presidents were land-grabbing, slave-owning empire-builders.

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Fighting in Vietnam nonetheless continued. In lieu of setting up unification elections, as stipulated in the Paris treaty, Thieu declared in November 1973 that the “Third Indochina War” had begun and went on the offensive. The NLF and NVA responded in kind, and with more success. Their final offensive to take Saigon was launched in March 1975. On April 2, Madame Nguyen Thi Binh, the Provisional Revolutionary Government representative who had signed the Paris treaty, offered to halt the NLF-NVA offensive if Thieu were replaced by a leader who would implement the terms of the Paris agreement. Thieu refused and lashed out against the NLF-NVA troops surrounding Saigon with every weapon at his command. The U.S. military, which came under the command of President Gerald Ford after Nixon was forced to resign on August 9, 1974 (due to the Watergate scandal), provided Thieu with monstrous 15,000-pound CBU-55 bombs originally intended to clear landing zones in the jungle.

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In his Essays on Freedom and Power (1948 edition), page 154, Lord Acton hadthis to say about the effects of the doctrine of equality in the French Revolution: The deepest cause which made the French Revolution so disastrousto liberty was its theory of equality .

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Pacifists generally abhorred the dehumanization of war, promoted conflict resolution and reconciliation, encouraged individual conscientious objection to war, and supported nonviolent social change for justice in the manner of Mohandas Gandhi and Martin Luther King. Jr. Many pacifist and pacifist-leaning groups had long experience in organizing campaigns (founding dates noted): FOR (1915), American Friends Service Committee (AFSC, 1917), WILPF (1919), WRL (1923), Congress on Racial Equality (CORE, 1942), and Central Committee for Conscientious Objectors (CCCO, 1948). Abraham Johannes (A.J.) Muste, a practical pacifist with experience in labor and civil rights movements, played a unifying role in the antiwar movement until his death in February 1967. Some pacifist groups, such as WILPF, leaned toward the liberal wing of the movement while others, such as WRL, pulled to the left. WRL International issued a statement in August 1968 declaring its intent to work with “our brothers and sisters in the various liberation movements” to “bring an end to colonialism and imperialism … but without yielding up our belief that the foundation of the future must be laid in the present, that a society without violence must begin with revolutionists who will not use violence.”