Organic Chemistry For 11 Essay : The Ultimate Convenience!
In 508 BCE, Athens entered its classical period, which lasted for nearly two centuries. In those two centuries, so much was invented by Greek philosophers and proto-scientists that it has been studied by scholars for thousands of years. One provocative question that scholars have posed is why the Industrial Revolution did not begin with the Greeks. The answer seems to be along the lines of Classic Greeks not having the social organization or sufficient history of technological innovation before wars and environmental destruction ended the Greek experiment. The achievements of Greece over the millennium of their intellectual fecundity are far too many to explore in this essay, but briefly, the Greeks invented: , , , the , a monetized economy, thought, such as , while developing other branches to unprecedented sophistication, and , which included the idea that . Long after the Classic Greek period was over, Hellenic intellectuals and inventors kept making innovations that had major impacts on later civilizations, such as Heron of Alexandria (or some other Greeks) inventing the and .
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This essay is intended to draw a comprehensive picture of life on Earth, the human journey, and energy's role. The references that support this essay are usually to works written for non-scientists or those of modest academic achievement so that non-scientists can study the same works without needing specialized scientific training. I am trying to in a tiny fraction of the global population. . My hope is that the energy issue can become that tiny fraction's focus. Properly educated, that group might be able to help catalyze an energy effort that can overcome the obstacles. That envisioned group may help humanity in many ways, but my primary goal is manifesting those technologies in the public sphere in a way that nobody risks life or livelihood. I have seen too many wrecked and prematurely ended lives (, ) and plan to avoid those fates, for both myself and the group’s members.
How does Chemistry affect our daily lives?
A free radical is an atom, molecule, or ion with an unpaired valence electron or an unfilled shell, and thus seeks to capture an electron. The used to create ATP in a mitochondrion leaks electrons, which creates free radicals, which will take that electron from wherever they can get it. creates some of the most dangerous free radicals, particularly the . The more hydroxyl radicals created, the more damage inflicted on neighboring molecules. Another free radical created by that electron leakage is , which can be neutralized by , but there is no avoiding the damage produced by the hydroxyl radical. Those kinds of free radicals are called (“ROS”). ROS are not universally deleterious to life processes, but if their production spins out of control, the oxidative stress inflicted by the ROS can cripple biological structures. ROS damage can cause programmed cell death, called , which is a maintenance process for complex life. Antioxidants are one way that organisms defend against oxidative stress, and is a standard antioxidant. Antioxidants usually serve multiple purposes in cellular chemistry, and antioxidant supplements generally do not work as advertised. They not only do not target the reactions that might be beneficial to prevent, but they can interfere with reactions that are necessary for life processes. Antioxidant supplements are blunt instruments that can cause more harm than good.
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consist of body plans, which scientists have used to classify all life forms, and all significant animal phyla had appeared by the Cambrian Period’s end. The Cambrian Explosion has been difficult to explain and there is still great controversy and many unanswered questions, and it has also been difficult to explain why significant change stopped the explosion. Once the basic body plans appeared and biomes were filled, new plans never appeared again. Why did all fundamental change stop? The emerging view is the same for why complex life with and never changed since then. Not only could innovation confer great benefits, but , further travel along the developmental path made it continually less feasible to backtrack, start over, and take another path, or choose a fundamentally different path. The history of life’s choices was reflected in organisms in several ways, and the source of that inertia began to be understood when biology and chemistry at the cellular and subcellular levels were investigated, particularly after DNA was sequenced and studied. The fact that have not significantly changed in several hundred million years points to the issue. Hox genes have not changed because they control key developmental steps in embryonic development. Not only do Hox genes work, there are no practical ways to significantly change them, as they lay the animal’s structural foundation. Hox genes are called regulatory genes, and the nature of seems to be why animals have not fundamentally changed since the Cambrian Explosion.