From The Sea: Essays On The History Of Amphibious Warfare.
LtCol Elliss story is a prime example of how the Marine Corps has molded herself to the needs of the time. During World War I, the Marines were mainly used as Army replacements which would later put them in danger of post-war dismantling. Furthermore, the dismal failure of amphibious operations at Gallipoli convinced military thinkers that amphibious operations could not succeed against strong opposition. But one man had the foresight to plan and develop an entire new realm of responsibility that ensured survival. These amphibious plans were honed and studied by the Marines in the Quantico schools over the decade of the 1920s. One man with one plan had changed the course of Marine Corps history and provided America with a powerful force for the upcoming wars.
assault essay from history sea warfare
The Marine Corps reputation as an amphibious force is understandable due to the history of amphibious doctrine. Two events occurred in the early 1920s that pushed the Marine Corps to the forefront of amphibious research. In 1920, the Marine Corps school s opened in Quantico, Virginia with the foresight that a war with Japan would entail the amphibious seizure of a series of islands across the Pacific (Estes 104). A year later, Lieutenant Colonel Earl "Pete" Ellis published his 30,000 word war portfolio entitled Advanced Base Operations in Micronesia. This document by one of the Corps most famous, if not infamous, characters detailed exactly what America had to do to meet the Japanese threat in the Pacific. He predicted and outlined every move the United States would eventually follow in World War II. Among his suggestions, he warned the Corps that they would eventually have to face heavily fortified Japanese islands and capture advance bases needed to project power across the Pacific (Moskin 221). Additionally , he described the capabilities and roles of new weapons such as the carrier, submarine, torpedo plane, and long-range bomber (Heinl 1310). World War II would eventually prove him correct.
This paper will also compare and contrast the differences between methodologies in the Atlantic and the Pacific Theatre of Operations concluding with a few observations on current and projected amphibious capabilities.
The Korean War: Barbarism Unleashed | Peace History
If you were asked most service people what the United States Marine Corps is bst at, you would get one of two answers. From a person somewhat familiar with what the Marine Corps has traditionally been known for, you would hear "Performing amphibious operations." From a person who truly understands the value of the Marine Corps, the answer would be not in what the Marine Corps does best, but rather what they are tasked with at the time. In other words, the Marine attitude, independent of its stage of evolution , is what has carried the Marine Corps so far over the last 221 years and it is this spirit that will guarantee its future existence. A study of amphibious doctrine from World War I through the Gulf War shows why Marines are not only amphibians but also chameleons.
The U.S. Naval Institute News Room | U.S. Naval Institute
To list just a few general observations:
• In the realm of amphibious assaults there is no substitute for overwhelming superiority on land, at sea and in the air at the point of attack.
Early Modern Warfare | Canadian War Studies Association
Due to the shortage of aircraft carriers amphibious assaults in the European Theatre of Operations were tied to land based air support.
Posts about Early Modern Warfare written by Alexander Howlett
Those who claim amphibious assaults have no place in modern warfare would do well to remember that as recently as 1991 the threat of a sea borne invasion from the Persian Gulf kept Saddam Hussein's elite Republican Guard pinned in Kuwait and western Iraq while General Schwarzkopf enveloped their right flank beginning the rout that was Desert Storm .